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E4SMA has been working hard on scaling up its modelling capabilities with Integrated Assessment Models.

E4SMA is among the users of the ETSAP-TIAM model and most recently developed two new global energy modelling applications, with similar characteristics and structures, but which differ on data sources used and geographical scope:

  • The so-called TIMES GEO fully relies on open source data and an high geographical granularity (31 regions).
  • GEM, which relies in most affordable statistics and balances (e.g. from IEA), covers 23 key regions, and includes a detailed representation of key sectors, such hard-to-abate manufacturing.


GEM (Global Energy Model)

Coverage: Global multiregional (23 regions) | Model type: TIMES | Horizon: 2019-2100

The GEM is is a newly developed energy system model to analyse the possible future developments of the global energy sector and to formulate robust future strategies and plans.

Key features:

  • Modularity: The GEM is built with a modular approach, which facilitates i) multiple scenario explorations, ii) input assumption maintenance, iii) review/improvement of some modelling components
  • Modern layout:
    • Calibration year: The model is calibrated to year 2019. Most of existing global models (e.g., TIAM) have much older calibration years. Furthermore, model inputs have been designed to facilitate possible future recalibrations to most recent years, minimizing the amount of required work.
    • Regional detail: Regions have been defined looking at most relevant regional groupings and disaggregations. Furthermore, the model structure was designed to facilitate any possible future review of the regional disaggregation level, minimizing the amount of required work.
    • Time resolution: Timeslices have been defined in a flexible way, allowing its revision with a minimal amount of work.
    • Technology explicit: the model is designed to explicitly track stocks of most relevant technologies (e.g., power plant capacities, transport fleets, GW of installed boilers, etc.)
    • Veda 2.0 platform: The model is designed using the Veda 2.0 model handling shell. Compared to the previous versions (Veda), the platform ensures more stability and higher performances.
  • Clear referencing: relevant effort was devoted to clearly report key data sources and assumptions. The goal is to speed-up the learning curve and facilitate future usage and maintenance.
  • Documentation: a model manual was developed as to guide users though the high-level model design and serve as basic operational manual for users facilitate future usage and maintenance.




Coverage: Global multiregional (31 regions) | Model type: TIMES | Data sources: Open data | Horizon: 2018-2100

TIMES GEO, is a TIMES multi-region global model developed by a collaboration of E4SMA with the University College Cork (Ireland) and Tsinghua University (China) within the Chimera project. It is a newly developed integrated energy system model relying fully on open source data, and covering 31 separate regions.

The model has a medium to long term horizon (up to 2100) and is designed to explore challenges related to climate transition, technology innovation,  trade in energy energy commodities, and in general on any energy strategy issue of the future energy system.


Coverage: Global multiregional (15 regions) | Model type: TIMES | Horizon: 2005-2100

The TIMES Integrated Assessment Model, TIAM, is the multi-region global version of TIMES originally developed by the IEA-ETSAP community. It combines an energy system representation of fifteen different regions with options to mitigate non-CO2 greenhouse gases as well as non-energy CO2 mitigation options, such as afforestation in each of these regions. It uses emissions from these sources to calculate temperature changes using a simple climate module. As such, it can be used to explore a variety of questions on how to mitigate climate change through energy system and transformations, as well as reductions in non-energy CO2 emissions and non-CO2 emissions.

We have prepared detailed documentation on the model and made it available through the I2AMParis platform. Furthermore some results are also published in the Results explorer! Example of potential analyses using the TIAM model can be downloaded from here.